From political revolution to social evolution

By Khaled Diab

To truly succeed, 's revolution needs to trigger a profound evolution in every strata of society.

Thursday 17 February 2011

Revolutions are things that happen elsewhere. But despite all the talk of Egyptians being too apathetic, docile, cynical or sceptical, or all these combined, here, too, there be a revolution.

And what a revolution it is proving to be. It is almost as though history has woken up, realised it had forsaken Egypt for too long and decided to move it from slow motion to fast-forward by packing a century's worth of events into a few short days.

Though I had expected a standoff between the various groups and the Mubarak regime this year because of the presidential , I never in my wildest dreams anticipated anything on this epic and almost universal scale.

For millions of Egyptians, including myself, 25 January marked a watershed moment in our collective identity, and the ride since that fateful day has been an emotional rollercoaster, with elation and pride at the courage and dedication of the protesters; admiration of their solidarity, creativity and goodwill; disgust and despair at the tactics of the regime; and hope and nervousness about the future.

The drama tells a tale of two Egypts. On the one side, there are the protesters, overflowing with vibrancy, irresistible energy, inventiveness and, above all, egalitarianism. On the other side, the dinosaurs of Egypt's Jurassic age stumble around and lash out wildly following the crash of the meteorite that is destroying their world. And the dinosaur-in-chief himself has left the building in what was perhaps the most beautiful moment that any Egyptian alive today could remember. 

While debate in Egypt has focused on post-Mubarak politics and, in the outside world, on fears of an Islamist takeover and what the uprising will mean for western interests and relations with Israel, the question of post-revolutionary social has been forgotten in the stampede.

In the early days of the revolution, I wrote that, though Egyptians look likely to throw off 's repressive rule and, hopefully, replace it with a , this would not mark the end of in Egypt, unless they dealt with the million mini-Mubaraks – in politics, in the home, in academia, in business – holding the country back.

So, what are the chances that the Egyptian revolution will spark a positive social evolution? Well, there are some promising signs in Egyptians' obstinate refusal to compromise on their demands, their willingness to speak their minds and their refusal to cower in front of authority. “People in Egypt have changed quite a bit: they now know that they are willing and able to take matters into their own hands,” says and Egyptian friend, Nicholas Accad.

This is epitomised in what some protesters have jokingly been calling the “Free Republic of ”. Karim Medhat Ennarah, a young protester who was on the square since the very first days, describes it as a “little utopia”.

“The social problems that have plagued Egypt for years seem to have dissolved,” he said of the mood among protesters. “Class distinctions have faded, religious and social tensions have disappeared. There is virtually no sexual harassment. No one feels superior to anyone else, and no one feels disenfranchised.”

But the relative mayhem and anarchy unleashed by Mubarak's supporters and thugs, though it elicited a renewed sense of civic duty and solidarity among many, also shed a stark light on the harsh class divisions within Egyptian society. “Egypt does not just have one dictator, but many little dictators whom you can see every day on the streets, such as the vigilantes who were thoroughly enjoying the new task assigned to them by the absence of police: terrorising Egyptian citizens who dare to waltz into their neighbourhoods, especially the more affluent ones,” Karim observed.

Other Egyptians I have spoken to are divided in their opinion as to how far-reaching the Egyptian revolution will prove socio-economically. During a long phone conversation with one friend, we were both doubtful that a democratic Egypt, though it may improve the lot of the poor, would manage to narrow, in any significant sense, the wide chasm between the haves and the have-nots, as demonstrated by how the army and many better-off protesters have been calling on strikers to go back to work.

This will especially be the case since it looks like there'll be tough economic times ahead – especially if Egypt is punished economically for its democratic choice by the dictatorship of the global markets – and there's been little talk of heavier taxation, fair minimum wages and other re-distributive measures.

It also remains to be seen whether Egyptians will be able to create a better meritocracy, weed out the that has set in like rot, and overcome the of ‘wasta'.“Egyptians will be the same. Changing governments won't change mentalities,” says Ahmed Dessouki, sounding a note of caution and pessimism. “We should change from head to toe. The revolution was a good start, but we shouldn't forget ourselves.”

But for many, the most significant change in Egypt has been a revolution of the mind, a discovery of the possible. “The revolution has already changed many Egyptians,” believes Noura Elhawary. “I don't think the Egyptians who participated in the protests will accept to be humiliated by anyone after that, or not ask for their rights after that.”

Events in Egypt have also triggered a major change in outlook among Arabs in general. “Something changed in all of us, I believe. It has shown us that we are not mere extras in a script,” says Khaled Dabbagh, a Palestinian. “May the revolution not only survive but continue.”


  • Khaled Diab

    Khaled Diab is an award-winning journalist, blogger and writer who has been based in Tunis, Jerusalem, Brussels, Geneva and Cairo. Khaled also gives talks and is regularly interviewed by the print and audiovisual media. Khaled Diab is the author of two books: Islam for the Politically Incorrect (2017) and Intimate Enemies: Living with Israelis and Palestinians in the Holy Land (2014). In 2014, the Anna Lindh Foundation awarded Khaled its Mediterranean Journalist Award in the press category. This website, The Chronikler, won the 2012 Best of the Blogs (BOBs) for the best English-language blog. Khaled was longlisted for the Orwell journalism prize in 2020. In addition, Khaled works as communications director for an environmental NGO based in Brussels. He has also worked as a communications consultant to intergovernmental organisations, such as the EU and the UN, as well as civil society. Khaled lives with his beautiful and brilliant wife, Katleen, who works in humanitarian aid. The foursome is completed by Iskander, their smart, creative and artistic son, and Sky, their mischievous and footballing cat. Egyptian by birth, Khaled's life has been divided between the Middle East and Europe. He grew up in Egypt and the UK, and has lived in Belgium, on and off, since 2001. He holds dual Egyptian-Belgian nationality.

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3 thoughts on “From political revolution to social evolution

  • I hope so, too, Steve. Pertinent post, especially: “I think they are the first in this wave of repulsion over our corrupted forms of government which affect and – indeed – rule us all.”

    Anne: “Let it be clear women have ‘earned’ a place dont let that be thrown out of the narrative and any future dialogue about democracy and its prospects.”
    Absolutely. Like in the struggle against colonialism, many courageous women have proven their mettle in this revolution, too. And this must not be forgotten.

  • Anne Gilles

    Khaled, thank you really enjoyed the read from someone in Australia that stayed with the revolution the whole time through the Guardian. Khaled, a huge element which is becoming obviously subjugated is as you said…“The revolution has already changed many Egyptians,” believes Noura Elhawary. “I don’t think the Egyptians who participated in the protests will accept to be humiliated by anyone after that, or not ask for their rights after that.” YES Noura! I am not young I can see something slipping through Eygptian fingers and it can be prevented.

    Include Women..the women who have so rightly claimed a position in advising selecting and openly participating in the process towards democracy. Older Eygptians can be upset by it let them, then tell them how a lot of women helped to organise the protests, died in the protests, stayed with the protests the whole time right to the end of Mubarak. Let it be clear women have ‘earned’ a place dont let that be thrown out of the narrative and any future dialogue about democracy and its prospects. You should help the women towards that end. Eygptians should not waste this opportunity to educate other Eygptians about real inclusion. Thanks Khaled.

  • Khaled, man, the road is hard and littered with so many massive obstructions. I watch from the US, where the moral and ethical compromises of our times, stemming from wars of choice, a strange and disturbing allowance of torture as tactic and a corporate structure which seems to be cementing its place in power all lead one to assess the unexamined mistakes and see a Tsunammi of bad news. The exercise of freedom being displayed in Arab countries now is a ray of hope and light. I think they are the first in this wave of repulsion over our corrupted forms of government which affect and – indeed – rule us all. I also hope it works out well. We face some very daunting tasks when we address a reform which we hope will produce a more just society. The elements required to address, as you say, run from our insides – out. I hope we’re all up to it.


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